e profit The orderly performance of the market ensures equal competition and fair trade, protecting the legitimate rights and interests of producers and operators and consumers. So we see Italian Banks being attacked for dealing with the country's banking crisis. We heard the bank of England's criticism that it was worried about the macroeconomic impact of brexit. We believe that US President Donald Trump intends to include the Federal Reserve in the political commission. Any transaction can be seen as a contract between the two parties. The so-called transaction cost can be seen as the cost of the transaction contract. According to Mr Coase and others, a type of transaction costs arise from the accidental factors that occur when a deal is signed. These incidental factors may not be written into the contract due to the fact that they could not be foreseen in advance, or although they could be foreseen, they could not be written into the contract due to too many factors. Another type of transaction costs is the signing of contracts and the cost of monitoring and enforcing contracts. Managing a business's operations, marketing and purchases activities and expense management are just some from the decisions that management needs to deal with. After they have designed a assist the company will then must decide what to do with those profits. Among the choices for using income is: operations, returning cash to shareholders, or keeping profit reserve for future use. In this article we discuss how you can calculate expanding the figure that's reported as retained earnings on balance sheets and presenting a review of why a company would want to keep a reserve. An offshore bank could be registered like a shareholder or an individual corporation. The typical objectives of offshore banks are to optimize payments, to further improve tax planning activities, and avoid excessive regulations of banking activities. They also try and provide 100% fund safety, increase the performance with the investment, and supply asset protection.